Morphine which is the best pain medication of the opiate family is found a good number of plants and animals. It reacts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to reduce the feeling of pain. It can be taken for both chronic and mile pains. It is mostly use for pain from farction and labor accident.
Maximum effect is reached after about 20 minutes when given intravenously and after 60 minutes when given by mouth.
While duration of effect is 3–7 hours.
Potentially serious side effects include:
Decreased respiratory effort and low blood pressure.
Morphine for pains is addictive and prone to abuse. If the dose is reduced after long-term use, opioid withdrawal symptoms may occur. Common side effects include:
Caution should be taken when it is use by a pregnant woman or breast feeding, as morphine may affect the baby.
Morphine was first isolated between 1803 and 1805 by Friedrich Sertürner. This is generally believed to be the first isolation of an active ingredient from a plant. Merck began marketing it commercially in 1827. Morphine was more widely used after the invention of the hypodermic syringe in 1853–1855.
Morphine is produce or extracted from poppy straw of the opium poppy. In 2013, approximately 523 tons of morphine were produced.
Approximately 45 tons were used directly for pain, About 70 percent of morphine is used to make other opioids such as hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and heroin.
Most use for this purpose was in the developed world.